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Chest. 2005 Aug;128(2):729-38.

Massive hemoptysis in cystic fibrosis.

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Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas St, 812-CSB, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.



Massive hemoptysis is a complication commonly reported in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). An understanding of the pathophysiology of this complication and its consequences is important for the management of patients with CF.


To identify risk factors associated with massive hemoptysis, and to determine the prognosis of patients following an episode of massive hemoptysis.


A retrospective, observational cohort study of the National CF Patient Registry between the years 1990 to 1999.


The Registry contained data on 28,858 patients with CF observed over 10 years at CF centers across the United States.


Massive hemoptysis occurred with an average annual incidence of 0.87% and in 4.1% of patients overall. There was no increased occurrence by sex, but it was more prevalent in older patients (mean age, 24.2 +/- 8.7 years [+/- SD]) with more severe pulmonary impairment (nearly 60% of patients who had an episode of massive hemoptysis had FEV1 < 40% predicted). The principal risks associated with an increased occurrence of massive hemoptysis included the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in sputum cultures (odds ratio [OR], 1.3) and diabetes (OR, 1.1). There was an increased morbidity (eg, increased hospitalizations and hospital days) and an increased 2-year mortality following massive hemoptysis.


Massive hemoptysis is a serious complication in CF patients, occurring more commonly in older patients with more advanced lung disease. Nearly 1 in 100 patients will have this complication each year. There is an attributable mortality to the complication and considerable morbidity, resulting in increased health-care utilization and a measurable decline in lung function.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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