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Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Oct;99(10):787-94.

Control of Biomphalaria pfeifferi population and schistosomiasis transmission in Ethiopia using the soap berry endod (Phytolacca dodecandra), with special emphasis on application methods.

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Institute for Community Medicine, Department of International Health, University of Oslo, Norway.


The endod (Phytolacca dodecandra)-based schistosomiasis mansoni control project was implemented in Ethiopia between 1994 and 1999. The aim was to develop an effective, cheap and sustainable method of controlling schistosomiasis. First, different formulations of the Ethiopian endod strain 44 (E-44) were compared for potency in the laboratory. Secondly, spray and drip-feeding methods were compared for simplicity and effectiveness in the field. Lastly, the efficacy of endod powder soap was compared with the endod spray method. In Bati stream, endod powder soap was distributed to the residents every weekend at laundry sites. In Worke stream, endod was sprayed along a 1-km stretch of the stream at 3-month intervals. No endod was applied in Harbu stream. The immediate and long-term effects of endod application on the snail population and schistosomal infection were determined. Using the spray method, 100% snail mortality could be obtained, and it was simpler and more effective than the drip-feeding method. Snail mortality ranged from 20 to 100% using endod soap. There was a progressive decline in the snail population and infection in Bati stream compared with Worke stream, mainly due to sustained use of endod soap. The advantages and disadvantages of the different endod delivery systems are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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