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Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005 Sep;84(9):909-13.

Comparison of three-dimensional hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography and diagnostic laparoscopy with chromopertubation in the assessment of tubal patency for the investigation of subfertility.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Mary Hospital, the University of Hong Kong, 102 Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China.



Two-dimensional hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography, as a screening test for tubal patency for subfertile patients, is limited by the difficulty in visualizing the entire Fallopian tube owing to its tortuosity. This major disadvantage can be overcome by means of the three-dimensional hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography (3D-HyCoSy). The current study compared the efficacy of 3D-HyCoSy with diagnostic laparoscopy and its feasibility as a screening test for tubal patency.


Twenty-one consecutive patients scheduled to have laparoscopy were recruited to undergo the 3D-HyCoSy 2 days before the scheduled laparoscopy. Echovist (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), the ultrasound contrast medium, was injected into the uterine cavity via a Foley's catheter. The flow of the medium in the Fallopian tube was captured by using three-dimensional power Doppler mode and was stored for later analysis. The person analyzing the images, the surgeon performing the laparoscopy, and the patients were blinded to the patients' identity and the sonography findings. The sonography and the laparoscopy findings were compared. The duration for the ultrasound examination, pain score, and patient acceptability were assessed.


Thirty-four of 42 (81%) Fallopian tubes were assessed. The sensitivity of 3D-HyCoSy for detecting tubal patency was 100% with a specificity of 67%. The positive and negative predictive values were 89 and 100%, respectively; the concordance rate was 91%. The mean duration (+/- SD) for the 3D-HyCoSy was 13.4 +/- 5.5 min. Fifteen patients (71%) regarded the sonography examination as at least acceptable.


This study confirmed the feasibility of using 3D-HyCoSy as an initial investigation for tubal patency.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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