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Syst Appl Microbiol. 2005 Jul;28(5):442-53.

Taxonomic comparison of three different groups of aflatoxin producers and a new efficient producer of aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin and 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin, Aspergillus rambellii sp. nov.

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Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.


Accumulation of the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B, has been reported from members of three different groups of Aspergilli (4) Aspergillus flavus, A. flavus var. parvisclerotigenus, A. parasiticus, A. toxicarius, A. nomius, A. pseudotamarii, A. zhaoqingensis, A. bombycis and from the ascomycete genus Petromyces (Aspergillus section Flavi), (2) Emericella astellata and E. venezuelensis from the ascomycete genus Emericella (Aspergillus section Nidulantes) and (3) Aspergillus ochraceoroseus from a new section proposed here: Aspergillus section Ochraceorosei. We here describe a new species, A. rambellii referable to Ochraceorosei, that accumulates very large amounts of sterigmatocystin, 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B1, but not any of the other known extrolites produced by members of Aspergillus section Flavi or Nidulantes. G type aflatoxins were only found in some of the species in Aspergillus section Flavi, while the B type aflatoxins are common in all three groups. Based on the cladistic analysis of nucleotide sequences of ITS1 and 2 and 5.8S, it appears that type G aflatoxin producers are paraphyletic and that section Ochraceorosei is a sister group to the sections Flavi, Circumdati and Cervini, with Emericella species being an outgroup to these sister groups. All aflatoxin producing members of section Flavi produce kojic acid and most species, except A. bombycis and A. pseudotamarii, produce aspergillic acid. Species in Flavi, that produce B type aflatoxins, but not G type aflatoxins, often produced cyclopiazonic acid. No strain was found which produce both G type aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid. It was confirmed that some strains of A. flavus var. columnaris produce aflatoxin B2, but this extrolite was not detected in the ex type strain of that variety. A. flavus var. parvisclerotigenus is raised to species level based on the specific combination of small sclerotia, profile of extrolites and rDNA sequence differences. A. zhaoqingensis is regarded as a synonym of A. nomius, while A. toxicarius resembles A. parasiticus but differs with at least three base pair differences. At least 10 Aspergillus species can be recognized which are able to biosynthesize aflatoxins, and they are placed in three very different clades.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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