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Curr Opin Hematol. 2005 Sep;12(5):370-6.

Long-term outcomes of venous thrombosis in children.

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  • 1Section of Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center / The Children's Hospital, Denver, CO 80045-0507, USA.



Venous thromboembolism has become an increasingly recognized clinical entity in children over the past decade. Recently, important efforts have been made to track post thrombotic outcomes. The present review discusses the knowledge gained from seminal studies in the field over the past decade, with particular emphasis on the findings of numerous published reports on outcomes of various types of venous thromboembolism in the pediatric literature from January 2003 to January 2005.


Large cohort studies involving acute venous thromboembolism of all types in children have recently confirmed a rather low frequency of recurrent venous thromboembolism, but have shown a lack of thrombus resolution following standard-duration anticoagulant therapy in as many as 50% of patients. In addition, the development of the post thrombotic syndrome has been demonstrated in greater than one third of children with venous thromboembolism involving the extremities. Persistent thrombosis despite adequate anticoagulation has been independently associated with complete vaso-occlusion at diagnosis. Furthermore, the presence of elevated levels of factor VIII and D-dimer either at diagnosis or following three to six months anticoagulation has now been defined as a predictor of adverse long-term outcomes of pediatric thrombosis.


This body of work indicates that the various forms of venous thromboembolism in children are in general associated with a considerable degree of adverse outcomes, particularly in the form of venous thromboembolism-related mortality, recurrent thromboembolism, and development of post thrombotic syndrome. Advances in the prediction of post thrombotic outcomes have begun, and must continue to facilitate a risk-stratified approach to antithrombotic management in children, and to ultimately achieve meaningful improvements in long-term outcomes.

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