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Cytogenet Genome Res. 2005;110(1-4):35-48.

LINEs, SINEs and processed pseudogenes: parasitic strategies for genome modeling.

Author information

1
Unité des Rétrovirus Endogènes et Eléments Rétroïdes des Eucaryotes Supérieurs, UMR 8122 CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Abstract

Two major classes of retrotransposons have invaded eukaryotic genomes: the LTR retrotransposons closely resembling the proviral integrated form of infectious retroviruses, and the non-LTR retrotransposons including the widespread, autonomous LINE elements. Here, we review the modeling effects of the latter class of elements, which are the most active in humans, and whose enzymatic machinery is subverted to generate a large series of "secondary" retroelements. These include the processed pseudogenes, naturally present in all eukaryotic genomes possessing non-LTR retroelements, and the very successful SINE elements such as the human Alu sequences which have evolved refined parasitic strategies to efficiently bypass the original "protectionist" cis-preference of LINEs for their own retrotransposition.

PMID:
16093656
DOI:
10.1159/000084936
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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