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Mol Microbiol. 2005 Aug;57(4):1127-42.

The conserved flaF gene has a critical role in coupling flagellin translation and assembly in Caulobacter crescentus.

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Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569, USA.


The expression of the flagellin proteins in Caulobacter crescentus is regulated by the progression of flagellar assembly both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. An early basal body structure is required for the transcription of flagellin genes, whereas the ensuing assembly of a hook structure is required for flagellin protein synthesis. Previous experiments have shown that the negative regulatory protein, FlbT, operates this second post-transcriptional checkpoint by associating with the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the fljK flagellin transcript, inhibiting translation and destabilizing the mRNA. In this paper we examine the role of flaF in flagellar biogenesis. The flaF gene, which is conserved in several speices of flagellated alpha-proteobacteria, is required for motility and flagellin protein synthesis. A deletion of flbT in a DeltaflaF strain restored flagellin protein expression, but not motility, indicating that FlaF functions in filament assembly. Mutant strains with a deletion in flaF had no detectable fljK mRNA, the levels of which were restored by an additional mutation in flbT. Assay of fljK gene expression using transcription and translation reporter fusions indicated that FlaF was essential for the translation of fljK mRNA. FlaF protein levels were under cell cycle control, peaking during the period of flagellin expression and filament assembly, whereas FlbT was present throughout the cell cycle. These results suggest that FlbT and FlaF activities oppose one another in the regulation of flagellin expression in response to both the progression of flagellar assembly and the cell cycle.

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