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Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2005 May;71(5 Pt 1):051305. Epub 2005 May 17.

Penetration depth for shallow impact cratering.

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Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547, USA.


We present data for the penetration of a variety of spheres, dropped from rest, into a loose noncohesive granular medium. We improve upon earlier work [J. S. Uehara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 194301 (2003)] in three regards. First, we explore the behavior vs sphere diameter and density more systematically, by holding one of these parameters constant while varying the other. Second, we prepare the granular medium more reproducibly and, third, we measure the penetration depth more accurately. The new data support the previous conclusion that the penetration depth is proportional to the 1/2 power of sphere density, the 2/3 power of sphere diameter, and the 1/3 power of total drop distance.


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