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Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Jun;7(3):431-41.

Prevalence and correlates of lifetime smokeless tobacco use in female military recruits.

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Mayo Clinic Nicotine Dependence Center Research Programs, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.


Although considerable research has been conducted on smokeless tobacco (ST) use in males, much less is known about the characteristics of female ST users. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of lifetime ST use among female Air Force recruits (N=9,087). Participants were surveyed during Basic Military Training regarding their history of tobacco use and other health risk behaviors. Although the prevalence of current ST use was low (<1%; n=34), 6.6% (n=599) had tried ST. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that lifetime ST use was related to ethnicity, with Native Americans and Whites being most likely to have tried ST. Additional correlates of lifetime ST use included post-high-school education (OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.03-1.55); weekly acts of road rage (OR=1.48, 95% CI=1.06-2.06); frequent arguing (OR=1.71, 95% CI=1.18-2.48); daily or near-daily alcohol consumption (OR=1.71, 95% CI=1.03-2.82); current cigarette use (OR=3.80, 95% CI=2.42-5.94); and experimental use of cigars (OR=4.01, 95% CI=3.22-5.01), pipes (OR=2.23, 95% CI=1.64-3.03), and clove cigarettes (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.01-1.49), all of which were associated with an increased likelihood of ST use. Results suggest that female recruits who have ever used ST engage in a variety of risk behaviors including use of other tobacco products and alcohol, as well as additional harmful behaviors.

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