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J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Oct;97(1-2):203-11. Epub 2005 Aug 2.

Inhibition of prostate cancer-meditated osteoblastic bone lesions by the low-calcemic analog 1alpha-hydroxymethyl-16-ene-26,27-bishomo-25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

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Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, Unit 435, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


Prostate cancer metastasizes almost exclusively into the bone whereby it induces primarily an osteoblastic response. Non-calcemic vitamin D analogs have been shown to inhibit proliferation of prostate cancer cells in culture and inhibit their growth as subcutaneous xenografts in mice. However, their effect on prostate cancer cell growth in the bone has not been examined. In the present study, we inoculated the osteoblastic prostate cancer cell line MDA-PCa 2b into the bone of male SCID mice and examined the effect of the low-calcemic hybrid analog 1alpha-hydroxymethyl-16-ene-26,27-bishomo-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3) (JK-1626-2) on their ability to induce bone lesions. We found that 7 weeks after inoculation of MDA-PCa 2b cells, 90% of the mice in the vehicle-treated group had significant bone lesions that were detectable by micro-computed tomography and characterized by thickening of the cortical bone and ossification of the epiphysis. Only 30% of the mice in the analog-treated group (daily injections of 4microg/kg, 5 days/week for up to 7 weeks) had detectable bone lesions. Histological examination of the decalcified tumor-bearing bones has shown that tumor cells completely replaced the bone marrow in the diaphysis, and destroyed the trabecular bone in the metaphysis in 90% of the vehicle-treated mice. In contrast, the metaphysis of 60% of analog-treated mice appeared normal, although tumor cells were still found in the diaphysis of 70% of the bones in the analog-treated group. There was no evidence of hypercalcemia in any of the analog-treated mice. In a co-culture, MDA-PCa 2b cells induced a profound mitogenic response in osteoblasts followed by enhanced differentiation. However, in the presence of the analog the mitogenic response of the osteoblasts to the malignant cells was significantly attenuated. These experiments led to the hypothesis that, in vivo, JK-1626-2 prevented the metastatic bone lesions by inhibiting the mitogenic response of osteoblasts to growth factors produced by MDA-PCa 2b cells.

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