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Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Sep;77(3):408-19. Epub 2005 Jul 14.

Y-chromosome evidence of southern origin of the East Asian-specific haplogroup O3-M122.

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Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming, China.


The prehistoric peopling of East Asia by modern humans remains controversial with respect to early population migrations. Here, we present a systematic sampling and genetic screening of an East Asian-specific Y-chromosome haplogroup (O3-M122) in 2,332 individuals from diverse East Asian populations. Our results indicate that the O3-M122 lineage is dominant in East Asian populations, with an average frequency of 44.3%. The microsatellite data show that the O3-M122 haplotypes in southern East Asia are more diverse than those in northern East Asia, suggesting a southern origin of the O3-M122 mutation. It was estimated that the early northward migration of the O3-M122 lineages in East Asia occurred approximately 25,000-30,000 years ago, consistent with the fossil records of modern humans in East Asia.

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