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Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2005;43:141-69.

Principles of plant health management for ornamental plants.

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Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Long Island Horticultural Research & Extension Center, Riverhead, New York 11901, USA.


Economic, environmental, and technological influences complicate the task of achieving disease-free products in the ornamentals industry. Integrated pest management (IPM) is a cornerstone of floriculture and nursery crop production: strategies include sanitation, clean stock, host resistance, and control through biological, cultural, environmental, chemical, and regulatory means. Sanitation measures and cultural controls must keep pace with new production technologies. Clean stock programs are used for many crops that are propagated vegetatively. Breeding, selection, and biotechnology provide crops resistant to pathogens. Offshore production for economic competitiveness can introduce pathogens that make regulatory programs necessary. New biocontrol and chemical products continue to improve control while meeting the requirement for minimal environmental impact. Continual introduction of new crops and new production technologies creates new opportunities for pathogens to exploit, such that new disease management tactics must be discovered and old ones rediscovered to achieve optimum health management for ornamentals.

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