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J Med Chem. 2005 Aug 11;48(16):5360-8.

Mechanism of poly(acrylic acid) acceleration of antithrombin inhibition of thrombin: implications for the design of novel heparin mimics.

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1
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Virginia Commonwealth University, 410 N. 12th Street, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.

Abstract

The bridging mechanism of antithrombin inhibition of thrombin is a dominant mechanism contributing a massive approximately 2500-fold acceleration in the reaction rate and is also a key reason for the clinical usage of heparin. Our recent study of the antithrombin-activating properties of a carboxylic acid-based polymer, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), demonstrated a surprisingly high acceleration in thrombin inhibition (Monien, B. H.; Desai, U. R. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 1269). To better understand this interesting phenomenon, we have studied the mechanism of PAA-dependent acceleration in antithrombin inhibition of thrombin. Competitive binding studies with low-affinity heparin and a heparin tetrasaccharide suggest that PAA binds antithrombin in both the pentasaccharide- and the extended heparin-binding sites, and these results are corroborated by molecular modeling. The salt-dependence of the K(D) of the PAA-antithrombin interaction shows the formation of five ionic interactions. In contrast, the contribution of nonionic forces is miniscule, resulting in an interaction that is significantly weaker than that observed for heparins. A bell-shaped profile of the observed rate constant for antithrombin inhibition of thrombin as a function of PAA concentration was observed, suggesting that inhibition proceeds through the "bridging" mechanism. The knowledge gained in this mechanistic study highlights important rules for the rational design of orally available heparin mimics.

PMID:
16078853
DOI:
10.1021/jm0503648
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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