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Biochemistry. 1992 Jun 9;31(22):5193-200.

Different requirements for productive interaction between the active site of HIV-1 proteinase and substrates containing -hydrophobic*hydrophobic- or -aromatic*pro- cleavage sites.

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1
Department of Biochemistry, University of Wales College of Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Abstract

The sequence requirements for HIV-1 proteinase catalyzed cleavage of oligopeptides containing two distinct types of junctions (-hydrophobic*hydrophobic- or -aromatic*Pro-) has been investigated. For the first type of junction (-hydrophobic*hydrophobic-) the optimal residues in the P2 and P2' positions were found to be Val and Glu, respectively, in accord with recent statistical analysis of natural cleavage sites [Poorman, R. A., Tomasselli, A. G., Heinrikson, R. L., & K├ęzdy, F. J. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 14554-14561]. For the -aromatic*Pro- type of junction, in the specific sequence context studied here, the value of Glu in the P2' position was again observed. An explanation for the inefficient cleavage observed for peptides with the sequence -Val-Tyr*Pro- has been provided from molecular modeling of the putative enzyme-substrate complex. A significant effect upon cleavage rates due to the amino acid in the P5 position has also been documented. While lysine in the P5 position in one sequence of the -hydrophobic*hydrophobic- type produces a peptide cleaved very efficiently (kcat greater than 15 s-1 for Lys-Ala-Arg-Val-Nle*p-nitrophenylalanine-P2'-Ala-Nle-NH2, for P2' = Glu, Gln, Ile, Val, or Ala), for substrates of the -aromatic*Pro- type, the P5 residue can exert either a positive or negative effect on cleavage rates. These results have again been interpreted in light of molecular modeling. We suggest that interaction of the substrate sequence on the periphery of the active site cleft may influence the match of the enzyme-substrate pair and, hence, control the efficiency of catalysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

PMID:
1606143
DOI:
10.1021/bi00137a015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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