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Eur J Heart Fail. 2005 Aug;7(5):803-8.

Prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression in a sample of chronic heart failure patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

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Department of Clinical Psychology, Post Graduate Medical Institute, Hertford Building, University of Hull, Kingston-upon-Hull HU6 7RX, United Kingdom.



To determine the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression in patients with heart failure due to Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (LVSD).


Psychological adjustment to Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) can be poor, with the prevalence of depression in out-patients ranging from 13% to 48%. The prevalence of anxiety disorders in this population is unknown and the factors that predict anxiety and depression are not well understood.


100 out-patients from a community heart failure programme completed a clinical diagnostic interview--the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I), to evaluate anxiety and depression. Mean age was 67+/-11 years, 17% were women and 91% were NYHA Class II or III. Other standardised measures were of cognition, biomedical status, social support and previous physical and mental health history.


The prevalence rates of anxiety and depression (all subtypes) were 18.4% and 28.6%, respectively. Predictors of depression included a reported history of mental ill-health and NYHA class. Predictors of anxiety included a reported history of mental ill-health, co-morbid physical illness (diabetes and angina) and NYHA class. Severity of LVSD did not predict either anxiety or depression.


Both anxiety and depression are common in CHF patients. The data on the predictors of poor psychological adjustment might assist in targeting bio-psychosocial intervention for patients who are at most at risk of anxiety and depression, within community CHF disease management programmes.

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