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Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005 Jun;34(4):407-10. Epub 2005 Jan 24.

Submandibular gland endoscopic resection: a cadaveric study.

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Department of Oral, Maxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery, Northside University Hospital, Marseille, France.


Recent advancement of head and neck surgery has been marked by the development of endoscopic and video-assisted minimally invasive surgery. This study reports the feasibility of endoscopic submandibular gland resection in human cadavers. Twelve submandibular gland resections were performed in six human cadavers. A 30 degrees angle endoscope and conventional surgical instruments were inserted through two 15 mm submandibular incisions. Dissection was carried out bluntly with scissors in an avascular plane superficial to the gland. No insufflation was needed since transcutaneous sutures lead to effective retraction. Facial vessels, the lingual nerve and Wharton's duct were identified and protected. Vascular ligatures were performed using surgical miniclips. After the procedure, an open submandibular dissection was performed to control the integrity of the anatomical structures. In all cases, the resection of the submandibular gland was successful without the need for an additional incision. Injuries of the facial artery and lingual nerve occurred when the procedure was carried out initially. The operative time decreased with training, from 120 min for the first cases to 35 min for the later ones. In conclusion, endoscopic submandibular gland resection is possible without major difficulty. Training and experience reduce the operative time and the complication rate.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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