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Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2005 Dec;16(6):593-609. Epub 2005 Jul 19.

CXC chemokines in angiogenesis.

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Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 900 Veteran Avenue, 14-154 Warren Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1786, USA.


CXC chemokines display pleiotropic effects in immunity, regulating angiogenesis, and mediating organ-specific metastases of cancer. In the context of angiogenesis, CXC chemokines are a unique family of cytokines, known for their ability to behave in a disparate manner in the regulation of angiogenesis. Members that contain the 'ELR' motif are potent promoters of angiogenesis, and mediate their angiogenic activity via binding and activating CXCR2 on endothelium. In contrast, members, in general, those are inducible by interferons and lack the ELR motif (ELR-) are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis, and bind to CXCR3 on endothelium. This review will discuss the biology of these angiogenic and angiostatic CXC chemokines and discuss their disparate angiogenic activity in the context of a variety of disorders.

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