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Clin Exp Immunol. 2005 Sep;141(3):432-9.

Exposure to Mycobacterium avium induces low-level protection from Mycobacterium bovis infection but compromises diagnosis of disease in cattle.

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Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Newbury, UK.

Erratum in

  • Clin Exp Immunol. 2005 Dec;142(3):595.


We assessed the effect of exposure to Mycobacterium avium on the development of immune responses and the pathogenesis of disease observed following Mycobacterium bovis challenge. A degree of protection against M. bovis was observed in calves which were pre-exposed to M. avium as assessed by the extent of lesions and bacterial load compared to the M. bovis alone group. The immune response following M. bovis challenge in cattle previously inoculated with M. avium was biased towards antigens (PPD) present in M. avium, whereas the response following M. bovis alone was biased towards antigens present in M. bovis, indicating an imprinting of memory to avian antigens on T lymphocytes. A consequence of the memory to M. avium antigens was failure to diagnose M. bovis infection by the skin test or the IFN(gamma) assay in some of the animals which had lesions of tuberculosis at necropsy. The use of M. bovis specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 increased IFN(gamma) test specificity in animals previously exposed to M. avium but the responses to these antigens were lower than those observed in animals exposed to M. bovis alone. The implication is that responses to M. avium, although providing some immunity, may mask diagnosis of M. bovis infection, even when specific antigens are employed, potentially contributing to disease transmission in the field.

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