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Plant J. 2005 Aug;43(3):425-36.

Overexpression of ADC2 in Arabidopsis induces dwarfism and late-flowering through GA deficiency.

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Laboratori de Fisiologia Vegetal, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda Diagonal, 643. 08028-Barcelona, Spain.


We have obtained Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing ADC2, one of the two genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (ADC) in Arabidopsis. These plants contained very high levels of putrescine (Put) but no changes were observed in spermidine and spermine contents. The results obtained from quantification of free and conjugated polyamines suggest that conjugation may be a limiting step for control of Put homeostasis within a non-toxic range for plant survival. Transgenic plants with increased levels of ADC2 transcript and elevated Put content showed dwarfism and late-flowering, and the phenotype was rescued by gibberellin A3 (GA3) application. The contents of bioactive GA4 and GA1, and of GA9 (a precursor of GA4), as well as the levels of AtGA20ox1, AtGA3ox1 and AtGA3ox3 transcripts (quantified by real-time PCR) were lower in the ADC2 overexpressor plants than in the wild type. No change in the expression of genes encoding earlier enzymes in the GA biosynthesis pathway was detected by microarray analysis. These results suggest that Put accumulation affects GA metabolism through the repression of biosynthetic steps catalyzed by GA 20-oxidase and GA 3-oxidase.

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