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J Endod. 2005 Aug;31(8):613-5.

An in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity of various endodontic irrigants on human gingival fibroblasts.

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U.S. Army Endodontic Residency Program, Fort Gordon, GA 30905, USA.


The purpose of this study was to measure the cytotoxicity of six endodontic irrigants on cultured gingival fibroblasts using the CyQuant assay. Human gingival fibroblasts were grown in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum at 37 degrees C and 5% CO(2). At confluence, cells were split, plated in 96-well plates and incubated for 24-h to allow attachment. The following irrigants were tested at various concentrations: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); iodine potassium-iodide (IKI); Betadine scrub (BS); calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]; chlorine dioxide (SCD) and DMEM (positive control). Experimental groups were compared by the logarithmic difference between the clinical and LD50 concentrations of a particular irrigant. The results showed that IKI and Ca(OH)2 were significantly less cytotoxic than SCD, NaOCl, and BS. In conclusion, IKI and Ca(OH)2 are well tolerated by human gingival fibroblasts.

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