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Anim Reprod Sci. 2006 Jul;93(3-4):185-98. Epub 2005 Jul 25.

Trophoblast cells of ruminant placentas--A minireview.

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Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.


The ruminant placenta is classified as cotyledonary and synepitheliochorial on the basis of its gross anatomical features and histological characteristics, respectively. The richly vascularized embryonic chorioallantois is lined on its external surface by cells of the trophectodermal epithelium. These cells which assume specialized functions are referred to as trophoblast cells. Two morphologically and functionally distinct cell types have been recognized in the trophectoderm of the placenta of ruminant animals. These are the mononucleate trophoblast cells and the binucleate trophoblast cells. The occurrence, morphological characteristics, and specialized functions of these trophoblast cells, in relation to conceptus nutrition and survival in utero are discussed in this review.

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