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Virology. 2005 Sep 30;340(2):192-208.

Global gene expression analysis of two Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophages using DNA microarray.

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Département de biochimie et de microbiologie, Faculté des sciences et de génie, Université Laval, Québec City, Canada.


A custom microarray was developed to study the temporal gene expression of the two groups of phages infecting the Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus. The complete genomic sequence of the virulent cos-type phage DT1 (34,815 bp) and the pac-type phage 2972 (34,704 bp) were used for the construction of the microarray. Gene expression was measured at nine time intervals (0, 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, 32 and 37 min) during phage infection and an expression curve was determined for each gene. Each phage gene was then classified into one of the three traditional transcription classes and these data were used to generate the complete transcriptional map of DT1 and 2972. Phage DT1 possesses 18 early genes, 12 middle genes and 12 late-expressed genes whereas 2972 has 16 early, 11 middle and 14 late genes. The trends of the phage gene expression profiles were also confirmed by slot blot hybridizations. Significant differences were observed when comparing the transcriptional maps of DT1 and 2972 with those already available for the S. thermophilus phages Sfi19 and Sfi21. To our knowledge, this report presents the first complete transcription analysis of bacteriophages infecting Gram-positive bacteria using the DNA microarray technology.

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