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Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Sep 1;15(17):3828-33.

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the transmembrane isozyme XIV with sulfonamides.

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Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8505, Japan.


The inhibition of the last human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC isozyme (hCA XIV) discovered has been investigated with a series of sulfonamides, including some clinically used derivatives (acetazolamide, methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dichlorophenamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, benzolamide, and zonisamide), as well as the sulfamate antiepileptic drug topiramate. The full-length hCA XIV is an enzyme showing a medium-low catalytic activity, quite similar to that of hCA XII, with the following kinetic parameters at 20 degrees C and pH 7.5, for the CO2 hydration reaction: k(cat) = 3.12 x 10(5) s(-1) and k(cat)/K(M) = 3.9 x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). All types of activities have been detected for the investigated compounds, with several micromolar inhibitors, including zonisamide, topiramate, and simple sulfanilamide derivatives (K(I)-s in the range of 1.46-6.50 microM). In addition, topiramate and zonisamide were observed to behave as weak hCA XII inhibitors, while zonisamide was an effective hCA IX inhibitor (K(I) of 5.1 nM). Some benzene-1,3-disulfonamide derivatives or simple five-membered heteroaromatic sulfonamides showed K(I)-s in the range of 180-680 nM against hCA XIV, whereas the most effective of such inhibitors, including 3-chloro-/bromo-sulfanilamide, benzolamide-like, ethoxzolamide-like, and acetazolamide/methazolamide-like derivatives, showed inhibition constant in the range of 13-48 nM. The best hCA XIV inhibitor was aminobenzolamide (K(I) of 13 nM), but no CA XIV-selective derivatives were evidenced. There are important differences of affinity of these sulfonamides/sulfamates for the three transmembrane CA isozymes, with CA XII showing the highest affinity, followed by CA IX, whereas CA XIV usually showed the lowest affinity for these inhibitors.

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