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J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005 Jul;99(1):5-22.

A perspective on the muscle reflex: implications for congestive heart failure.

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Division of Cardiology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.


In this review we examine the exercise pressor reflex in health and disease. The role of metabolic and mechanical stimulation of thin fiber muscle afferents is discussed. The role ATP and lactic acid play in stimulating and sensitizing these afferents is examined. The role played by purinergic receptors subdivision 2, subtype X, vanilloid receptor subtype 1, and acid-sensing ion channels in mediating the effects of ATP and H+ are discussed. Muscle reflex activation in heart failure is then examined. Data supporting the concept that the metaboreflex is attenuated and that the mechanoreflex is accentuated are presented. The role the muscle mechanoreflex plays in evoking renal vasoconstriction is also described.

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