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Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD004797.

Multisystemic Therapy for social, emotional, and behavioral problems in youth aged 10-17.

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Graduate School of Social Work and Social Research, Bryn Mawr College, 300 Airdale Road, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-1697, USA.



Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is an intensive, home-based intervention for families of youth with social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Masters-level therapists engage family members in identifying and changing individual, family, and environmental factors thought to contribute to problem behavior. Intervention may include efforts to improve communication, parenting skills, peer relations, school performance, and social networks. Most MST trials were conducted by program developers in the USA; results of one independent trial are available and others are in progress.


To provide unbiased estimates of the impacts of MST on restrictive out-of-home living placements, crime and delinquency, and other behavioral and psychosocial outcomes for youth and families.


Electronic searches were made of bibliographic databases including the Cochrane Library, C2-SPECTR, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Sociological Abstracts) as well as government and professional websites, from 1985 to January 2003. Reference lists of articles were examined, and experts were contacted.


Studies where youth (age 10-17) with social, emotional, and/or behavioral problems were randomised to licensed MST programs or other conditions (usual services or alternative treatments).


Two reviewers independently reviewed 266 titles and abstracts; 95 full-text reports were retrieved, and 35 unique studies were identified. Two reviewers independently read all study reports for inclusion. Eight studies were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality and extracted data from these studies.Significant heterogeneity among studies was identified (assessed using Chi-square and I(2)), hence random effects models were used to pool data across studies. Odds ratios were used in analyses of dichotomous outcomes; standardised mean differences were used with continuous outcomes. Adjustments were made for small sample sizes (using Hedges g). Pooled estimates were weighted with inverse variance methods, and 95% confidence intervals were used.


Pooled results show no significant effects of MST on the likelihood or duration of restrictive out-of-home placements, proportion of youth who were arrested or convicted, or numbers of arrests/convictions within one-year post-intervention. There were no significant differences on drug tests or self-reported drug use at a 6-month follow-up. In analyses of post-treatment data for program completers, there were no significant between-group differences on self-reported delinquency, peer relations, youth behavior problems, youth psychiatric symptoms, parent psychiatric symptoms, or family functioning.


There is little evidence of the superiority of MST over other interventions with youth. There is also no evidence that MST has harmful effects.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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