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Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2005 Aug;83(4):409-18.

Risk factors for age-related maculopathy in a 14-year follow-up study: the Copenhagen City Eye Study.

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Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet, National University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.



To examine the association between potential risk factors and the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM).


Population-based cohort study.


At baseline, 946 volunteers participated in the study during 1986--88. These subjects were between 60 and 80 years of age and lived in the Østerbro district of Copenhagen. Excluding participants who had died since baseline, 359 subjects (97.3% of survivors) were re-examined 14 years later, during 2000--2002. A total of 31.8% (301/946) of the original material was included in the risk factor analyses.


Participants underwent an ophthalmological examination at Rigshospitalet, the National University Hospital of Copenhagen. Similar standardized protocols for physical examination were used at the baseline and follow-up examinations. Age-related maculopathy lesions were determined by the same grader grading colour fundus photographs from both examinations using a modification of the Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System protocol.


Of the 359 participants, 94 had incident early ARM and 52 had incident late ARM at follow-up in either eye. In logistic regression, the risk factors for early ARM or worse were as follows: cataract (odds ratio [OR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-6.2); family history of ARM (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.3--15.5), and alcohol consumption >250 g/week (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.1-19.2). High levels of apolipoprotein B (>100 mg/l) decreased the risk of development of early ARM or worse (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8), while high levels of apolipoprotein A1 (>or= 150 mg/l) increased the risk of late ARM (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.3). Advanced age at baseline was also associated with the incidence of late ARM (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-2.9).


These findings indicate a direct correlation between age, cataract, family history, alcohol consumption, the apolipoproteins A1 and B and the 14-year incidence of ARM.

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