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Diabetologia. 2005 Sep;48(9):1726-35. Epub 2005 Jul 16.

Rosiglitazone Evaluated for Cardiac Outcomes and Regulation of Glycaemia in Diabetes (RECORD): study design and protocol.

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  • 1School of Clinical Medical Sciences-Diabetes, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Medical School, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.



Studies suggest that in addition to blood glucose concentrations, thiazolidinediones such as rosiglitazone improve some cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and surrogate markers, that are abnormal in type 2 diabetes. However, fluid retention might lead to cardiac failure in a minority of people. The aim of the Rosiglitazone Evaluated for Cardiac Outcomes and Regulation of Glycaemia in Diabetes (RECORD) study is to evaluate the long-term impact of these effects on CV outcomes, as well as on long-term glycaemic control, in people with type 2 diabetes.


RECORD is a 6-year, randomised, open-label study in type 2 diabetic patients with inadequate blood glucose control (HbA1c 7.1-9.0%) on metformin or sulphonylurea alone. The study is being performed in 327 centres in Europe and Australasia. After a 4-week run-in, participants were randomised by current treatment stratum to add-on rosiglitazone, metformin or sulphonylurea, with dose titration to a target HbA1c of < or = 7.0%. If confirmed HbA1c rises to > or = 8.5%, either a third glucose-lowering drug is added (rosiglitazone-treated group) or insulin is started (non-rosiglitazone group). The same criterion for failure of triple oral drug therapy in the rosiglitazone-treated group is used for starting insulin in this group. The primary endpoint is the time to first CV hospitalisation or death, blindly adjudicated by a central endpoints committee. The study aim is to evaluate non-inferiority of the rosiglitazone group vs the non-rosiglitazone group with respect to CV outcomes. Safety, tolerability and study conduct are monitored by an independent board. All CV endpoint and safety data are held and analysed by a clinical trials organisation, and are not available to the study investigators while data collection is open.


Over a 2-year period a total of 7,428 people were screened in 25 countries. Of these, 4,458 were randomised; 2,228 on background metformin, 2,230 on background sulphonylurea. Approximately half of the participants are male (52%) and almost all are Caucasian (99%).


The RECORD study should provide robust data on the extent to which rosiglitazone, in combination with metformin or sulphonylurea therapy, affects CV outcomes and progression of diabetes in the long term.

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