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Adv Enzyme Regul. 2005;45:126-35. Epub 2005 Jul 18.

Nuclear phospholipase C beta1, regulation of the cell cycle and progression of acute myeloid leukemia.

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1
Cellular Signaling Laboratory, Department of Anatomical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, Bologna 40126, Italy. lcocco@biocfarm.unibo.it

Abstract

A large number of observations have hinted at the fact that location impinges on function of some of the main players of nuclear inositol lipid cycle. PLC beta1 is a well-known example, given that it has been shown that only the enzyme located in the nucleus targets the cyclin D3/cdk4 complex, playing, in turn, a key role in the control of normal progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The PLC beta1 gene, which is constituted of 36 small exons and large introns, maps on the short arm of human chromosome 20 (20pl2, nearby markers D20S917 and D20S177) with the specific probe (PAC clone HS881E24) spanning from exon 19 to 32 of the gene itself. The chromosome band 20pl2 has been shown to be rearranged in human diseases such as solid tumors without a more accurate definition of the alteration, maybe because of the absence of candidate genes or specific probes. Moreover, non-specific alterations in chromosome 20 have been found in patients affected by MDS and acute myeloid leukemia AML. MDS is an adult hematological disease that evolves into AML in about 30% of the cases. The availability of a highly specific probe gave an opportunity to perform in patients affected with MDS/AML, associated with normal karyotype, painting and FISH analysis aimed to check the PLC beta1 gene, given that this signaling molecule is a key player in the control of some checkpoints of the normal progression through the cell cycle. FISH analysis disclosed in a small group of MDS/AML patients with normal karyotype the monoallelic deletion of the PLC beta1 gene. In contrast, PLC beta4, another gene coding for a signaling molecule, located on 20pl2.3 at a distance as far as less than 1 Mb from PLC beta1, is unaffected in MDS patients with the deletion of PLC beta1 gene, hinting at an interstitial deletion. The MDS patients, bearing the deletion, rapidly evolved to AML, whilst the normal karyotype MDS patients, showing non-deletion of PLC beta1 gene, are still alive at least 24 months after the diagnosis. The immunocytochemical analysis using an anti PLC beta1 monoclonal antibody showed that all the AML/MDS patients who were normal at FISH analysis also had normal staining of the nucleus, which is a preferential site for PLC beta1. In contrast, the monoallelic deletion gave rise to a dramatic decrease of the nuclear staining suggesting a decreased expression of the nuclear PLC beta1. The reported data strengthen the contention of a key role played by PLC beta1 in the nucleus, suggest a possible involvement of PLC beta1 in the progression of MDS to AML and pave the way for a larger investigation aimed at identifying a possible high risk group among MDS patients with a normal karyotype.

PMID:
16024064
DOI:
10.1016/j.advenzreg.2005.02.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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