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Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2005 Dec;16(6):561-80. Epub 2005 Jul 14.

Synergy in cytokine and chemokine networks amplifies the inflammatory response.

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Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, University of Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.


The inflammatory response is a highly co-ordinated process involving multiple factors acting in a complex network as stimulators or inhibitors. Upon infection, the sequential release of exogenous agents (e.g. bacterial and viral products) and induction of endogenous mediators (e.g. cytokines and chemokines) contribute to the recruitment of circulating leukocytes to the inflamed tissue. Microbial products trigger multiple cell types to release cytokines, which in turn are potent inducers of chemokines. Primary cytokines act as endogenous activators of the immune response, whereas inducible chemokines act as secondary mediators to attract leukocytes. Interaction between exogenous and endogenous mediators thus enhances the inflammatory response. In this review, the synergistic interaction between cytokines to induce chemokine production and the molecular mechanisms of the cooperation amongst co-induced chemokines to further increase leukocyte recruitment to the site of inflammation are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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