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Mar Pollut Bull. 2005 Nov;50(11):1382-5. Epub 2005 Jul 14.

Embryotoxicity of the antifouling biocide zinc pyrithione to sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus edulis).

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Departamento de Ecoloxía e Bioloxía Animal, Universidade de Vigo, Ctra. Colexio Universitario s/n, 36310 Vigo, Spain.


The effects of the new antifouling compound zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on the embryonic development of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus edulis) were investigated in laboratory toxicity tests. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were 7.7 nM for sea urchin embryos and 8 nM for mussel embryos. Toxic effects of Zpt on the larval growth of the sea urchin were detected at 0.5 nM. Predicted environmental concentrations of Zpt in pleasure craft harbours are higher than the predicted no effect concentrations for sea urchin and mussel embryos, indicating that Zpt may pose a threat to those species from exposure in the field.

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