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J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005 Aug;59(8):670-4.

Wider income gaps, wider waistbands? An ecological study of obesity and income inequality.

Author information

1
Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Seebohm Rowntree Building, Area 3, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK. kp6@york.ac.uk

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To see if obesity, deaths from diabetes, and daily calorie intake are associated with income inequality among developed countries.

DESIGN:

Ecological study of 21 developed countries.Countries: Countries were eligible for inclusion if they were among the top 50 countries with the highest gross national income per capita by purchasing power parity in 2002, had a population over 3 million, and had available data on income inequality and outcome measures.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Percentage of obese (body mass index >30) adult men and women, diabetes mortality rates, and calorie consumption per capita per day.

RESULTS:

Adjusting for gross national per capita income, income inequality was positively correlated with the percentage of obese men (r = 0.48, p = 0.03), the percentage of obese women (r = 0.62, p = 0.003), diabetes mortality rates per 1 million people (r = 0.46, p = 0.04), and average calories per capita per day (r = 0.50, p = 0.02). Correlations were stronger if analyses were weighted for population size. The effect of income inequality on female obesity was independent of average calorie intake.

CONCLUSIONS:

Obesity, diabetes mortality, and calorie consumption were associated with income inequality in developed countries. Increased nutritional problems may be a consequence of the psychosocial impact of living in a more hierarchical society.

PMID:
16020644
PMCID:
PMC1733121
DOI:
10.1136/jech.2004.028795
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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