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Am J Cardiol. 2005 Jul 15;96(2):221-6.

Combined effect of the metabolic syndrome and hostility on the incidence of myocardial infarction (the Normative Aging Study).

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Centers for Behavioral & Preventive Medicine, Brown Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.


A growing body of evidence suggests that the metabolic syndrome and hostility are independent risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease. However, few studies have examined the combined effect of the metabolic syndrome and hostility on the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). We examined prospectively the relation among the metabolic syndrome, hostility, and the incidence of MI in healthy, older men (mean +/- SD 59.7 +/- 7.2 years) who participated in the Normative Aging Study. Seven hundred fifty-four men who were diagnosed as not having coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus were included in the present study. Men were assigned to 1 of 4 risk-factor groups based on the presence or absence of the metabolic syndrome and low or high hostility. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the multivariate risk of developing a MI. The incidence of MI was 11.3% (n = 85) over an average follow-up period of 13.8 years. After adjusting for potential covariates, risk-factor group significantly predicted the incidence of MI (odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.29 to 1.96, p <0.0001). The effect was strongest among patients who had the metabolic syndrome and high levels of hostility, with this subgroup showing a fourfold increase in the odds of developing a MI (odds ratio 4.21, 95% confidence interval 2.21 to 8.04, p = 0.0001). In conclusion, it appears that hostility may provide additional prognostic information to the assessment of coronary heart disease risk in patients with the metabolic syndrome and should routinely be evaluated as part of a comprehensive risk factor assessment.

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