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BMC Infect Dis. 2005 Jul 14;5:58.

Incidence and risk factors for liver enzyme elevation during highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-HCV co-infected patients: results from the Italian EPOKA-MASTER Cohort.

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Istituto di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali, Università degli Studi di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, Brescia, Italy.



The risk of hepatotoxicity associated with different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens (containing multiple-protease inhibitors, single-protease inhibitors or non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) in HIV-HCV co-infected patients has not been fully assessed.


Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of 1,038 HIV-HCV co-infected patients who commenced a new HAART in the Italian MASTER database. Patients were stratified into naïve and experienced to antiretroviral therapy before starting the study regimens. Time to grade > or =III hepatotoxicity (as by ACTG classification) was the primary outcome. Secondary outcome was time to grade IV hepatotoxicity.


Incidence of grade > or =III hepatotoxicity was 17.71 per 100 patient-years (p-yr) of follow up in naïve patient group and 8.22 per 100 p-yrs in experienced group (grade IV: 4.13 per 100 p-yrs and 1.08 per 100 p-yrs, respectively). In the latter group, the only independent factors associated with shorter time to the event at proportional hazards regression model were: previous liver transaminase elevations to grade > or =III, higher baseline alanine amino-transferase values, and use of a non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor based regimen. In the naive group, baseline aspartate transaminase level was associated with the primary outcome.


Use of a single or multiple protease inhibitor based regimen was not associated with risk of hepatotoxicity in either naïve or experienced patient groups to a statistically significant extent. A cautious approach with strict monitoring should be applied in HIV-HCV co-infected experienced patients with previous liver transaminase elevations, higher baseline alanine amino-transferase values and who receive regimens containing non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

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