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J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2005 Aug;12(4):488-94.

Implementing family intervention following training: what can the matter be?

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School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.


Family interventions (FI) have been established as an effective treatment for psychosis. Training in this intervention is now widely available in the UK. This paper reports a review of published literature that investigates whether, following this training, graduates provide this evidence-based treatment for individuals with psychosis and their caregivers. It further seeks to identify the barriers to implementation in cases where the treatment is not provided and assess benefits for service users and carers when it is. The review was conducted using the MEDline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Embase databases. Studies that have attempted to evaluate the rates of implementation of FI by graduates of FI training programmes were identified, retrieved and reviewed. Six studies investigating the rates of implementation upon graduation were identified. The findings of these six studies were generally consistent. Rates of implementation by graduates of training programmes are usually low and a small number of graduates work with most of the families who are seen. The studies reviewed failed to assess service user and carer outcomes or consider the full range of likely impediments to the implementation of this evidence-based intervention. A key barrier to the implementation of FI is the reliance upon professionally developed and facilitated approaches. Alternative models that are service user and carer-led may provide a potential solution to the problem of implementation. Implications for future research and practice are considered.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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