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Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005 Summer;5(2):110-9.

Environmental factors associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seropositivity in free-ranging coyotes from northern California.

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Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina.


Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is a newly recognized pathogen of domestic dogs and humans. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are considered an important reservoir of this bacterium in the western United States, but its vectors are still unknown. Our objective was to identify environmental factors associated with Bartonella antibody prevalence in 239 coyotes from northern California, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, associations were evaluated between B. v. berkhoffii and two pathogens with known vectors and habitat requirements, Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Overall, B. v. berkhoffii seroprevalence was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.3%, 33.7%) and Bartonella seropositive coyotes were more likely than seronegative coyotes to be positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Odds ratio = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.9) and Dirofilaria immitis (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.8). The most likely geographic clusters of Bartonella and Dirofilaria overlapped. Bartonella seropositivity was associated with higher precipitation (p = 0.003) and proximity to the coast (p = 0.007) in univariate analysis. The association with precipitation varied with season, based on a logistic regression model.

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