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J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Jul 20;127(28):10058-62.

Advanced surface modification of indium tin oxide for improved charge injection in organic devices.

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Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544-1009, USA.


A new method is described for surface modification of ITO with an electroactive organic monolayer. This procedure was done to enhance hole injection in an electronic device and involves sequential formation of a monolayer of a pi-conjugated organic semiconductor on the indium tin oxide (ITO) surface followed by doping with a strong electron acceptor. The semiconductor monolayer is covalently bound to the ITO, which ensures strong adhesion and interface stability; reduction of the hole injection barrier in these devices is accomplished by formation of a charge-transfer complex by doping within the monolayer. This gives rise to very high current densities in simple single layer devices and double layer light emitting devices compared to those with untreated ITO anodes.

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