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Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2005 May-Jun;8(3):320-38. Epub 2005 Jul 14.

Pediatric renal tumors: practical updates for the pathologist.

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Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Memorial Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60614, USA.


Pediatric renal tumors were targeted by the National Wilms Tumor Study Group for 4 decades with extraordinary success. Within this historic context, this review provides a summary of the new Children's Oncology Group renal tumor protocols that will be opening in the very near future, focusing on their pathologic requirements. All renal tumors must first be registered on the Renal Tumor Classification and Banking Protocol, followed by registration on 1 of 4 primary therapeutic protocols based on histology, stage, and molecular analysis. This requires prompt submission of samples for molecular analysis and central pathologic review. Changes in staging criteria include classification of all tumor spillage as stage III, and requirement of regional lymph node evaluation for eligibility for stage I Wilms tumors (WTs) weighing less than 550 g in infants younger than 24 months and for stage I clear cell sarcoma. Patients with unilateral favorable histology WT with loss of heterozygosity for chromosomes 1p and 16q will receive more aggressive chemotherapy at each stage. Patients with bilateral WT and patients with diffuse hyperplastic perilobar nephroblastomatosis will be eligible for a novel therapeutic protocol requiring pathologic classification based on response of tumor to previous therapy. Stage I anaplastic WT will be targeted with more aggressive chemotherapy than in the past. For the first time, pediatric renal cell carcinoma will be eligible for a cooperative group protocol. All rhabdoid tumors outside the central nervous system will be eligible for a single protocol. In conclusion, these new protocols bring considerable change in their overall organization, in eligibility, and in therapy.

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