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Child Dev. 1992 Jun;63(3):630-8.

Differences in shame and pride as a function of children's gender and task difficulty.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick 08903-0019.


3-year-old children were presented with easy and difficult tasks and their emotional responses of shame and pride were observed. No shame was shown when subjects succeeded on the tasks and no pride was shown when they failed. Significantly more shame was shown when subjects failed easy tasks than when they failed difficult tasks, and significantly more pride was shown when subjects succeeded on difficult than on easy tasks. While there were no sex differences in task failures, girls showed more shame than boys. There were no sex differences in pride when subjects succeeded.

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