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Am J Vet Res. 2005 Jun;66(6):1084-9.

Evaluation of iatrogenic hemarthrosis of the metacarpophalangeal joint as a method of induction of temporary reversible lameness in horses.

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Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8747, USA.



To determine whether iatrogenic hemarthrosis of the metacarpophalangeal joint could be used as a model for temporary reversible joint pain in horses.


8 adult horses.


Each horse was evaluated on a treadmill before and after injection of 1 metacarpophalangeal joint with 10 mL of autogenous blood. Horses were evaluated subjectively and objectively by use of a computerized force measurement system at intervals until lameness abated. The mean force difference between injected and noninjected limbs at all time periods after injection was compared with the difference between limbs at baseline. From each horse, synovial fluid samples collected before and 24 hours and 30 days after injection were analyzed for total protein concentration and cell type and number. Venous blood samples were collected before and 6 and 24 hours after injection for assessment of plasma cortisol concentration.


For 24 hours after injection, the mean force difference between injected and noninjected limbs was significantly increased over baseline. The greatest force difference was detected after 2 and 4 hours. Baseline and 24-hour force data were not significantly different. Compared with baseline values, synovial fluid protein concentration and nucleated cell and RBC counts were increased significantly at 24 hours after injection but were not different at 30 days after injection. No significant changes in plasma cortisol concentration were detected at any time point.


In horses, iatrogenic hemarthrosis of the metacarpophalangeal joint appears to induce temporary reversible lameness with a mild to moderate degree of synovitis.

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