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Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2005 Aug;38(4):597-611.

Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea: diagnosis and management.

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Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA, USA.


Advances in imaging and endoscopic techniques have improved the ability to diagnose, localize, and treat in a less morbid fashion CSF leaks of the anterior skull base. An appreciation for the mechanism of leak and of the relationship between CSF production and absorption must be kept in mind when individualizing a repair. Increased CSF pressure caused by overproduction or underabsorption may result in persistence of a leak despite one's best efforts. Numerous advances in dural replacement grafts and tissue sealants have improved the ability to achieve watertight closure of the cranial vault. Microvascular techniques have allowed larger defects previously not reconstructable to be handled with relative ease by trained personnel. With expanded reconstructive techniques, the ability to handle larger disease processes of the skull base continues to expand.

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