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Reprod Toxicol. 2006 Jan;21(1):4-15. Epub 2005 Jul 6.

Male reproductive disorders in humans and prenatal indicators of estrogen exposure. A review of published epidemiological studies.

Author information

1
Department of Occupational Medicine, University Hospital of Aarhus, Nørrebrogade 44, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. lstor@os.dk

Abstract

Male reproductive disorders in humans and prenatal indicators of estrogen exposure. A review of published epidemiological studies. Reports of an increase in male reproductive disorders in several countries led to the hypothesis that estrogens during fetal life may cause reduced sperm counts, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and testicular cancer. So far the hypothesis is based on animal studies and reports from the wild life. We systematically searched the epidemiological literature for evidence linking indicators of prenatal serum levels of maternal estrogens with sperm density, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer in humans. Indicators of fetal estrogen exposure included direct measurements, recorded intake of hormones (diethylstilbestrol (DES), oral contraceptives (OCs) and estrogens), pregnancy conditions with known deviant estrogen level as for instance twin pregnancies and some environmental exposures. Among 425 papers we reviewed 81 publications with appropriate information. With the possible exception of testicular cancer there is no strong epidemiological evidence to indicate that prenatal exposure to estrogen are linked to disturbed development of the male reproductive organs.

PMID:
16005180
DOI:
10.1016/j.reprotox.2005.05.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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