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Theriogenology. 2005 Aug;64(3):572-9.

Low-dose insemination--why, when and how.

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Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.


The typical dose for insemination into the uterine body of the mare is > 300 x 10(6) progressively motile spermatozoa (PMS) and an insemination dose of > 200 x 10(6) PMS is recommended for frozen-thawed semen. Low-dose insemination techniques allow for a drastic reduction in the numbers of spermatozoa required to achieve pregnancy. Acceptable pregnancy rates can be achieved with doses ranging from 1 to 25 x 10(6) PMS in volumes ranging from 20 to 1000 microL. Two techniques have been described: hysteroscopic insemination and transrectally guided deep horn insemination using a pipette. Similar pregnancy rates can be attained by either method when 5 x 10(6) PMS are used. Hysteroscopic insemination may provide an advantage when the dose is 1-3 x 10(6) PMS. These techniques have the potential to make more efficient use of frozen-thawed or sex-sorted semen from certain stallions. The use of low-dose insemination to improve fertility of infertile stallions warrants further investigation.

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