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Pharmacogenomics. 2005 Jun;6(4):357-71.

Functionally defective or altered CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their detection with genotyping tests.

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National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Science Center, NC 27709,USA.


Among the four cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A genes, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are the most abundantly expressed in the human liver. Eighty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP3A4/5 have been reported to the Human P450 Allele Nomenclature Committee. CYP3A4 alleles with minimal function compared with wild type include the CYP3A4*6 and CYP3A4*17. Alleles with moderately decreased or altered activity include: CYP3A4*2, *8, *11, *12, *13, *16, and *18. CYP3A5 alleles with minimal function include the splice variants CYP3A5*3, *5, *6 and CYP3A5* 10, as well as the null allele CYP3A5*7. Alleles with moderately decreased catalytic activity include CYP3A5*8 and CYP3A5*9. This report reviews the current progress in the functional characterization of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 SNPs and provides genotyping tests for possible defective variants. A combination of genotyping tests for defective CYP3A4/CYP3A5 haplotypes will be necessary to understand the variations in the metabolism and clinical toxicity of a wide variety of clinical drugs, since these two CYP proteins have overlapping substrate specificities.

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