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J Control Release. 2005 Sep 2;106(3):361-73.

Jet-induced skin puncture and its impact on needle-free jet injections: experimental studies and a predictive model.

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Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.


Needle-free jet injections constitute an important method of drug delivery, especially for insulin and vaccines. This report addresses the mechanisms of interactions of liquid jets with skin. Liquid jets first puncture the skin to form a hole through which the fluid is deposited into skin. Experimental studies showed that the depth of the hole significantly affects drug delivery by jet injections. At a constant jet exit velocity and nozzle diameter, the hole depth increased with increasing jet volume up to an asymptotic value and decreased with increasing values of skin's uniaxial Young's modulus. A theoretical model was developed to predict the hole depth as a function of jet and skin properties. A simplified model was first verified with polyacrylamide gels, a soft material in which the fluid mechanics during hole formation is well understood. Prediction of the hole depth in the skin is a first step in quantitatively predicting drug delivery by jet injection.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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