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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005 Aug 1;79(2):157-65.

Efficacy of dose and contingency management procedures in LAAM-maintained cocaine-dependent patients.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine and the VA CT Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA.


Opioid- and cocaine-dependent participants (N=140) were randomly assigned to one of the following in a 12-week clinical trial: LAAM (30, 30, 39 mg/MWF) with contingency management (CM) procedures (LC); LAAM (30, 30, 39 mg/MWF) without CM (LY); LAAM (100, 100, 130 mg/MWF) with CM (HC); LAAM (100, 100, 130 mg/MWF) without CM (HY). Urine samples were collected thrice-weekly. In CM, each urine negative for both opioids and cocaine resulted in a voucher worth a certain monetary value that increased for consecutively drug-free urines. Subjects not assigned to CM received vouchers according to a yoked schedule. Vouchers were exchanged for mutually agreed upon goods and services. Groups generally did not differ on retention and baseline characteristics. Overall opioid use was least in the HC and HY groups; opioid use decreased most rapidly over time in the HC group relative to the HY, LC and LY groups. Overall cocaine use was least in the HC group relative to the HY, LC, and LY groups; cocaine use decreased over time most rapidly in the HC and LY groups. Abstinence from both was greatest in the HC group. Opioid withdrawal symptoms decreased most rapidly in the high-dose groups relative to the low-dose groups. These results suggest that an efficacious maintenance dose is necessary for contingencies to be effective in facilitating both opioid and cocaine abstinence.

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