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J Neurochem. 2005 Sep;94(6):1570-9. Epub 2005 Jul 5.

ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener iptakalim protected against the cytotoxicity of MPP+ on SH-SY5Y cells by decreasing extracellular glutamate level.

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1
Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine and Neuropharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Abstract

Mounting evidence reveals that ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel openers (KCOs) exert significant neuroprotection in vivo and in vitro in several models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that SH-SY5Y cells expressed mRNA and proteins for Kir6.1, Kir6.2, SUR1 and SUR2 subunits of K(ATP) channels. Moreover, our results showed that 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion (MPP+) induced up-regulation of mRNA for the Kir6.2 subunit and down-regulation of SUR1. It was further found that pretreatment with iptakalim, a novel K(ATP) channel opener, could attenuate increased extracellular glutamate level and decreased cell survival in SH-SY5Y cell culture after exposure to MPP+. Trans-pyrrolidine-2, 4-dicarboxylic acid (t-PDC), a glutamate transporter inhibitor, partially blocked the effect of iptakalim decreasing extracellular glutamate level. Additionally, iptakalim prevented MPP+-induced inhibition of glutamate uptake in primary cultured astrocytes. The beneficial effects of iptakalim on glutamate uptake of astrocytes were abolished by selective mitochondrial K(ATP) (mitoK(ATP)) channel blocker 5-HD. These results suggest (i) K(ATP) channel dysfunction may be involved in the mechanisms of MPP+-induced cytotoxicity and (ii) iptakalim may modulate glutamate transporters and subsequently alleviate the increase of extracellular glutamate levels induced by MPP+ through opening mitoK(ATP) channels, thereby protecting SH-SY5Y cells against MPP+-induced cytotoxicity.

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