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Clin EEG Neurosci. 2005 Apr;36(2):116-22.

Evaluation and validity of a LORETA normative EEG database.

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Neurolmaaging Laboratory, Bay Pines VA Medical Center, St. Petersburg, Florida 33744, USA.


To evaluate the reliability and validity of a Z-score normative EEG database for Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA), EEG digital samples (2 second intervals sampled 128 Hz, 1 to 2 minutes eyes closed) were acquired from 106 normal subjects, and the cross-spectrum was computed and multiplied by the Key Institute's LORETA 2,394 gray matter pixel T Matrix. After a log10 transform or a Box-Cox transform the mean and standard deviation of the *.lor files were computed for each of the 2394 gray matter pixels, from 1 to 30 Hz, for each of the subjects. Tests of Gaussianity were computed in order to best approximate a normal distribution for each frequency and gray matter pixel. The relative sensitivity of a Z-score database was computed by measuring the approximation to a Gaussian distribution. The validity of the LORETA normative database was evaluated by the degree to which confirmed brain pathologies were localized using the LORETA normative database. Log10 and Box-Cox transforms approximated Gaussian distribution in the range of 95.64% to 99.75% accuracy. The percentage of normative Z-score values at 2 standard deviations ranged from 1.21% to 3.54%, and the percentage of Z-scores at 3 standard deviations ranged from 0% to 0.83%. Left temporal lobe epilepsy, right sensory motor hematoma and a right hemisphere stroke exhibited maximum Z-score deviations in the same locations as the pathologies. We conclude: (1) Adequate approximation to a Gaussian distribution can be achieved using LORETA by using a log10 transform or a Box-Cox transform and parametric statistics, (2) a Z-Score normative database is valid with adequate sensitivity when using LORETA, and (3) the Z-score LORETA normative database also consistently localized known pathologies to the expected Brodmann areas as an hypothesis test based on the surface EEG before computing LORETA.

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