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Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2005 Jan-Jun;25(1-2):1-30.

Solid-state fermentation systems-an overview.

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Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0204, USA.


Starting with a brief history of solid-state fermentation (SSF), major aspects of SSF are reviewed, which include factors affecting SSF, biomass, fermentors, modeling, industrial microbial enzymes, organic acids, secondary metabolites, and bioremediation. Physico-chemical and environmental factors such as inoculum type, moisture and water activity, pH, temperature, substrate, particle size, aeration and agitation, nutritional factors, and oxygen and carbon dioxide affecting SSF are reviewed. The advantages of SSF over Submerged Fermentation (SmF) are indicated, and the different types of fermentors used in SSF described. The economic feasibilities of adopting SSF technology in the commercial production of industrial enzymes such as amylases, cellulases, xylanase, proteases, phytases, lipases, etc., organic acids such as citric acid and lactic acid, and secondary metabolites such as gibberellic acid, ergot alkaloids, and antibiotics such as penicillin, cyclosporin, cephamycin and tetracyclines are highlighted. The relevance of applying SSF technology in the production of mycotoxins, biofuels, and biocontrol agents is discussed, and the need for adopting SSF technology in bioremediation of toxic compounds, biological detoxication of agro-industrial residues, and biotransformation of agro-products and residues is emphasized.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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