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J Neurochem. 2005 Jul;94(2):289-98.

Amyloid beta peptide 1-40 enhances the action of Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 agonists but antagonizes Toll-like receptor-9-induced inflammation in primary mouse microglial cell cultures.

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Department of Neurology, Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany.


The interaction of endogenous and exogenous stimulators of innate immunity was examined in primary cultures of mouse microglial cells and macrophages after application of defined Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (TLR4), the synthetic lipopeptide Pam3Cys-Ser-Lys4 (Pam3Cys) (TLR2) and single-stranded unmethylated CpG-DNA (CpG) (TLR9)] alone and in combination with amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) 1-40. Abeta1-40 stimulated microglial cells and macrophages primed by interferon-gamma in a dose-dependent manner. Co-administration of Abeta1-40 with LPS or Pam3Cys led to an additive release of nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). This may be one reason for the clinical deterioration frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease during infections. In contrast, co-application of Abeta1-40 with CpG led to a substantial decrease of NO and TNF-alpha release compared with stimulation with CpG alone. Abeta1-40 and CpG did not co-localize within the same subcellular compartment, making a direct physicochemical interaction as the cause of the observed antagonism very unlikely. This suggests that not all TLR agonists enhance the stimulatory effect of A beta on innate immunity.

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