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Psychol Methods. 2005 Jun;10(2):139-58.

Structural equation models for interchangeable dyads: being the same makes a difference.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.


Structural equation modeling (SEM) offers a flexible method for studying the patterns of interdependence in partners' behavior, which lie at the heart of interactions and relationships. Although SEM has been applied to the study of distinguishable dyads, in which partners are distinguishable by type, such as male and female, it has rarely been applied to the study of interchangeable dyads, such as male-male or female-female pairs. The authors integrate a wide range of dyadic interdependence models--including actor-partner interdependence models, mutual-influence models, and common-fate or dyadic personality models--into an SEM framework for use with interchangeable dyads. The authors also address the use of latent variables at both the dyadic and individual levels, whereby substantive relationships in these models can be corrected for errors of measurement. Furthermore, the authors discuss the conceptual underpinnings of dyadic models and give examples of their application.

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